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  • br In fact amylase and glucosidase are

    2020-08-28


    In fact, α-amylase and α-glucosidase are key AM 251 that have been major drug targets for the development of therapies to treat dia-betes and to reduce the severity of complications. Thus, the current investigation assessed the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities of the four fractions derived from C. curetum aerial parts using standard bio-chemical laboratory methods.
    The results showed that the aqueous and methanol fractions had
    α-amylase inhibitory activity and IC50 values of the C. curetum hexane, acetone, methanol and aqueous fractions in addition to the reference drug Acarbose.
    Conc. Acarbose Hexane fraction Acetone fraction Methanol fraction Aqueous fraction
    Table 4 The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and IC50 values of the C. curetum hexane, acetone, methanol and aqueous fractions in addition to Acarbose.
    Conc. Acarbose Hexane fraction Acetone fraction Methanol fraction Aqueous fraction
    Fig. 5. α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. curetum hexane, acetone, methanol and aqueous fractions in addition to Acarbose.
    strong α-amylase enzyme inhibitory activity in comparison with the reference anti-diabetic drug Acarbose with IC50 values of 21.37 ± 0.31 and 30.2 ± 0.42 μg/mL, respectively; the Acarbose anti-amylase IC50 value was 28.18 ± 0.42 μg/mL. These results indicate that the aqueous fraction of C. curetum has powerful α-amylase enzyme inhibitory ac-tivity, even more so than the commercially available antidiabetic drug Acarbose, while the methanolic fraction had nearly the same anti-diabetic activity as Acarbose. However, assessing the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the four C. curetum fractions revealed that the methanolic fraction had potent antiglucosidase property, greater than that of Acarbose with an IC50 value of 27.54 ± 4.28 μg/mL; the Acarbose α-glucosidase IC50 value was 37.15 ± 0.33 μg/mL.
    The antidiabetic activity of C. curetum aqueous and methanolic fractions indicated that the phenolic, flavonoid and tannins contents may inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. A study conducted by Kalita et al. showed that the phenolic content in potato inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase [35]. In another study performed by Salehi et al., there was a positive correlation between a plant’s poly-phenolic contents and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity [36].
    Lipase is a key enzyme and a major drug target for developing
    medications used to treat obesity, overweight, hyperlipidemia and other metabolic disorders related to increased blood triglyceride levels. Clinical investigations have shown that decreased lipid hydrolysis by the inhibition of lipase may decrease the lethal complications of these metabolic disorders.
    The porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity assay was utilized to evaluate the anti-lipase activity of the C. curetum hexane, acetone, methanol, and aqueous fractions, with the reference anti-lipase drug Orlistat, which is used as an anti-lipase and anti-obesity agent. The porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity results indicate that the hexane fraction had the greatest anti-lipase activity compared with Orlistat, with an IC50 value of 154.8 ± 1.86 μg/mL versus the Orlistat IC50 value of 12.3 ± 0.35 μg/mL. The other fractions did not show any anti-lipase activity. Variations between plant extracts in their contents of active phytochemicals can affect their inhibitory properties against porcine pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase.
    Despite the extensive global application of herbal products, there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on cancer cells. Conventional chemotherapeutic medications can induce cell death in both cancer cells and normal cells. Natural plant extracts or isolated bioactive compounds may exhibit apoptotic and cell cycle modulating properties and at the same time show limited toxicity in normal cells. In addition, it has been shown in ethnomedicine that herbs and other natural products have been intensively used for the treatment of dif-ferent types of cancer in various civilizations since ancient times [37]. In this study, the crude C. curetum hexane, acetone, methanol, and aqueous fractions were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity in the HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) and Colo-205 (colon cancer) cell lines. The results show that Colo-205 cell viability was reduced by approximately 90% with the 1 and 0.5 mg/mL C. curetum acetone and hexane fractions (p ≤ 0.0001), while the 10 and 5 mg/ml aqueous fractions significantly induced cytotoxicity (p≤0.0001 and p≤0.01) by approximately 90% and 90%, respectively. Moreover, the 10 mg/mL methanol fraction significantly induced cytotoxicity (p≤0.0001 and p≤0.01) by approximately 90%. In a study conducted by Arora et al., a 0.2 mg/mL Achyranthes aspera root extract reduced human colon cancer (Colo-205) cell viability by 60% [37].