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    Assessment of human pancreas cancer tissue and precursor lesions via a fluorophore with inherent PDAC selectivity
    Ian R. Munhenzvaa, Connor W. Barthb, Martha Sibrian-Vazqueza, Lei G. Wangb, Jorge O. Escobedoa, Summer L. Gibbsb,c,d, Robert M. Strongina,d,
    a Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, 1719 SW 10th Avenue, Portland, OR 97201, United States
    b Biomedical Engineering Department, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 SW Bond Avenue, Portland, OR 97239, United States
    c Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, United States
    d OHSU Center for Spatial Systems Biomedicine, Oregon Health & Science University, 2730 SW Moody Avenue, Portland, OR 97201, United States
    Pancreatic cancer
    Tumor targeting
    Fluorescence imaging
    Frozen section 
    The current five-year survival rate of < 5% for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is compounded by late diagnosis, a lack of PDAC-specific intraoperative guidance to ensure complete resection, and the ineffectiveness of current therapies. Previously, utilizing compound 1, a fluorophore with inherent PDAC selectivity, PDAC was visualized both in vivo and ex vivo in a murine model. In the current study, human PDAC tissue is targeted. Compound 1 selectively stains ducts of the adenocarcinoma versus the surrounding stroma, enabling the imaging of PDAC in frozen tissue sections with high contrast. To enhance the potential of 1 for intraoperative applica-tions, the ex vivo staining protocol was optimized for rapid margin assessment, with a final staining time of ~15 min. To measure diagnostic performance, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was measured for the identification of ductal adenocarcinoma vs. stroma. The bright fluorescence contrast en-abled quantitative determination of PDAC (or precancerous PanIN lesions) versus healthy pancreas tissue in human tissue array samples.